Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran. It is the city of pioneers and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province, as well. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of Quru River and Mehran River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals, and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of Eynali Mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes gently down to the Northern end of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometers (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, the city is considered a summer resort.